Eco-commualism and Its Green TransformationHuan Qingzhi
Eco-communalism, or eco-anarchism, is an environmental social-political theory or ecological culture theory based on eco-centric philosophical values and ethics. The key idea of eco-communalism is that human society should live in a manner of fully respecting and following the natural ecological world and its laws; accordingly reinterpreting and reconstructing an ecological relationship between human and nature and between society and nature is not only an appropriate starting point of coping with the current world ecological crisis, but also an important impetus for realizing the necessary green transformation in our times. However,the real challenge value of eco-communalism is by far greater than its real transformation dynamic or effect. In other words, to some extent eco-communalism represents the height of our times and the border of our rationality that we rethink and reconstruct the modern civilization from a natural and ecological perspective, though we can always make “effective” or “correct” criticism on any of its concrete ideas or plans in terms of the reality.
The Green State Theory from the Perspective of Ecological Culture Theory Liu Heqing
Since the 1990s, the green state theory has become an issue under discussion in western academia. The green state theory mainly pays attention to the role that the state plays in environmental protection and explores the questions of “What is a green state?” and “How possible would it be a green state?”The concept of green state theory reflects the appeal for ecological ethics. The western scholars insist that the state’s green transformation be achieved in a gradual or radical way. Scholars such as Eckersley are trying to find a balance between the ideal and the reality. The previous green state theories are mainly based on the research of the western environmental governance experience, but in recent years with the more and more conspicuous issue of green state identity construction in developing countries, the green revolution in the framework of Chinese politics will enrich the study of green state theory.
On Social Ecology and Green Transformation from the Perspective of Ecological Culture Theory
As the new development of natural ecology since the 20th century, social ecology applies ecological methods, principles and concepts to analysis and discussion on both social and ecological problems and thus has characteristics and perspectives of both natural science and social science. This paper introduces the history, theory and practice of social ecology with an attempt to explain in what way social ecology is a branch of ecological culture theory. Critiques and defenses of social ecology are reviewed, and the value of social ecology for green transformation is analyzed as well.